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MEDICAL CHECK-UP FOR DRUG USERS

House M.D.

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Medical Check-Up is a minimum list of tests and examinations to monitor the state of health. Everyone who uses drugs should definitely take care of checking their body in advance. Narcotics exacerbate existing problems with the body, which leads to the emergence of pathological conditions or chronic diseases. Chronic health problems are the main causes of rapid aging and disability, which do not occur in one day or even in a month. Pathological processes (the state of pre-disease) occur much earlier before the manifestation of the disease and do not have obvious symptoms. Early detection of the first deviations gives more chances to prevent spreading of diseases. This is called prevention or preventive medicine.
Disease and disability are affected by environmental factors, genetic predisposition, disease agents, and lifestyle choices, and are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected.

WHAT SHOULD I DO EVERY YEAR?
Below you see a list of analyzes and instrumental studies with a brief decoding of what they show.

Clinical Check-up:
▪ Сomplete blood count (CBC)
▪ Urinalysis
▪ Basic metabolic panel: SGOT, SGPT, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphotase, С-reactive protein
▪ Thyroid profile: TTH, Т3 free, Т4 free
▪ Lipid panel: total cholesterine, lipoproteine panel, triglycerides
▪ Vitamin D level
▪ Glycated hemoglobin
▪ Homocysteine
▪ Ferritin

Instrumental examination:
▪ Thyroid and abdominal ultrasound
▪ ECG
▪ Chest X-ray
▪ Examination by general practitioner
▪ Dentist examination

The list expands after 40 years old due to additional tests one time in 2 years:
▪ Colonoscopy procedure
▪ Coagulation test - your blood's ability to clot and how long it takes
▪ Vascular ultrasound

For Men:
• Prostate/rectal ultrasound
• PSA test

For Women:
• Mammary gland ultrasound
• Bone densitometry

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CBC
A complete blood count, or CBC, is a blood test that measures many different parts and features of your blood, including: Red blood cells, which carry oxygen from your lungs to the rest of your body. White blood cells, which fight infections and other diseases. There are five major types of white blood cells.
• Red blood cells, which carry oxygen
• White blood cells, which fight infection
• Hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells
• Hematocrit, the proportion of red blood cells to the fluid component, or plasma, in your blood
• Platelets, which help with blood clotting

URINALYSIS
An urinalysis is a test of your urine. It's used to detect and manage a wide range of disorders, such as urinary tract infections, kidney disease and diabetes. An urinalysis involves checking the appearance, concentration and content of urine. For example, a urinary tract infection can make urine look cloudy instead of clear. Increased levels of protein in urine can be a sign of kidney disease.

METABOLIC PANEL
A comprehensive test consisting of many indicators reflecting the homeostasis of the body, which allows you to evaluate the work of internal organs and get information about the metabolism of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates.​
  • ALT (SGPT) - is a blood test that checks for liver damage. Your doctor can use this test to find out if a disease, drug, or injury has damaged your liver.​
  • AST (SGOT) is an enzyme that is found mostly in the liver, but it's also in muscles and other organs in your body. When cells that contain AST are damaged, they release the AST into your blood. An AST blood test measures the amount of AST in your blood. The test is commonly used to help diagnose liver damage or disease.​
  • CREATININE is a chemical compound left over from energy-producing processes in your muscles. Healthy kidneys filter creatinine out of the blood. Creatinine exits your body as a waste product in urine. A measurement of creatinine in your blood or urine provides clues to help your doctor determine how well the kidneys are working.​
  • BLOOD UREA NITROGEN (BUN) – A common blood test, the blood urea nitrogen test reveals important information about how well your kidneys are working. A BUN test measures the amount of urea nitrogen that's in your blood.​
Here's how your body typically forms and gets rid of urea nitrogen:
• Your liver produces ammonia — which contains nitrogen — after it breaks down proteins used by your body's cells.​
• The nitrogen combines with other elements, such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, to form urea, which is a chemical waste product.​
• The urea travels from your liver to your kidneys through your bloodstream.​
• Healthy kidneys filter urea and remove other waste products from your blood.​
• The filtered waste products leave your body through urine.​

  • TOTAL PROTEIN - Proteins are one of the building blocks of every cell. They also play an important role in many biological processes. They are essential for growth and development, nutrient and hormone transport, and immune function. The level of protein drops sharply with malnutrition, exhaustion, malabsorption in the intestine or a decrease in the protein-synthesizing function of the liver. An excess of protein in the blood indicates the spreading in the body of any pathological process such as bacterial infection, an autoimmune disease, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, etc.
  • TOTAL BILIRUBIN (TBIL) Bilirubin is a yellowish substance in your blood. It forms after red blood cells break down, and it travels through your liver, gallbladder, and digestive tract before being excreted. The condition of having high bilirubin levels is called hyperbilirubinemia. It’s usually a sign of an underlying condition, so it’s important to follow up with a doctor if test results show you have high bilirubin. A bilirubin test is generally carried out to measure the amount of bilirubin present in your body. Sometimes when there is higher than normal levels of bilirubin in the body, it could be an indication of liver problems.
  • ALKALINE PHOSPHOTASE (ALP) test measures the amount of ALP in your blood. ALP is an enzyme found throughout the body, but it is mostly found in the liver, bones, kidneys, and digestive system. When the liver is damaged, ALP may leak into the bloodstream. High levels of ALP can indicate liver disease or bone disorders.
  • GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) test measures the amount of GGT in the blood. GGT is an enzyme found throughout the body, but it is mostly found in the liver. When the liver is damaged, GGT may leak into the bloodstream. High levels of GGT in the blood may be a sign of liver disease or damage to the bile ducts. Bile ducts are tubes that carry bile in and out of the liver. Bile is a fluid made by the liver. It is important for digestion
  • LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LDH) - This test measures the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), also known as lactic acid dehydrogenase, in your blood or sometimes in other body fluids. LDH is a type of protein, known as an enzyme. LDH plays an important role in making your body's energy. It is found in almost all the body's tissues, including those in the blood, heart, kidneys, brain, and lungs. When these tissues are damaged, they release LDH into the bloodstream or other body fluids. If your LDH blood or fluid levels are high, it may mean certain tissues in your body have been damaged by disease or injury.
  • C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (CRP) - A c-reactive protein test measures the level of c-reactive protein (CRP) in your blood. CRP is a protein made by your liver. It's sent into your bloodstream in response to inflammation. Inflammation is your body's way of protecting your tissues if you've been injured or have an infection. It can cause pain, redness, and swelling in the injured or affected area. Some autoimmune disorders and chronic diseases can also cause inflammation.
  • THYROID PANEL
    This is a set of laboratory tests that reflect the work of the thyroid gland.
  • THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) stands for thyroid stimulating hormone. A TSH test is a blood test that measures this hormone. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located near your throat. Your thyroid makes hormones that regulate the way your body uses energy. It also plays an important role in regulating your weight, body temperature, muscle strength, and even your mood. TSH is made in a gland in the brain called the pituitary. When thyroid levels in your body are low, the pituitary gland makes more TSH. When thyroid levels are high, the pituitary gland makes less TSH. TSH levels that are too high or too low can indicate your thyroid isn't working correctly.
  • FREE THYROXINE (T4 Free) – Thyroxine or T4 is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland. The term “free T4” means measured T4 that is not bound to proteins in the blood. T4 is about one-tenth as potent as T3 in humans. Nonetheless, T4 acts on almost every cell in the body, helping to setting the metabolic rate of the cell. T4 is important for growth and development, especially in fetuses and children. The thyroid gland produces and stores T4 until it is needed for release.
  • FREE TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T3 Free) is the most biologically active thyroid hormone in humans. The term “free T3” means the amount of T3 that is not bound to proteins in the blood. T3 acts on almost every cell in the body by setting the metabolic rate of the cell. T3 is also critical for growth and development, especially in fetuses and children. The thyroid gland produces and releases some of the T3 in the blood, but about 80% of T3 is produced from T4 or thyroxine in the liver, kidney, and thyroid tissue.
  • INSULIN
    Insulin is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body. It regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and protein by promoting the absorption of glucose from the blood into liver, fat and skeletal muscle cells.
    A high level of insulin indicates to decreasing in the sensitivity of tissues to insulin and the development of insulin resistance, which leads to type 2 diabetes and obesity. Also, an elevated level can be with tumor of the pancreas. A decrease in the level indicates the depletion of the pancreas, which can lead to type 1 diabetes. Also, a decrease in insulin levels can be with a violation in the work of mitochondria, with exhaustion, starvation, as well as on low-carbohydrate diets.

    LIPID PANEL
    This is a set of indicators that reflects lipid metabolism and the risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
  • TOTAL CHOLESTEROL. This is a sum of your blood's cholesterol content - an indicator that includes all circulating cholesterol in the blood. It does not reflect the real picture of lipid metabolism and should not be evaluated in isolation.
  • LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) cholesterol. This is called the "bad" cholesterol. Too much of it in your blood causes the buildup of fatty deposits (plaques) in your arteries (atherosclerosis), which reduces blood flow. These plaques sometimes rupture and can lead to a heart attack or stroke.
  • HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL) cholesterol. This is called the "good" cholesterol because it helps carry away LDL cholesterol, thus keeping arteries open and your blood flowing more freely.
  • TRIGLYCERIDES. Triglycerides are a type of fat in the blood. When you eat, your body converts calories it doesn't need into triglycerides, which are stored in fat cells. High triglyceride levels are associated with several factors, including being overweight, eating too many sweets or drinking too much alcohol, smoking, being sedentary, or having diabetes with elevated blood sugar levels.
    VITAMIN D
    Vitamin D is a nutrient your body needs for building and maintaining healthy bones. That's because your body can only absorb calcium, the primary component of bone, when vitamin D is present. Vitamin D also regulates many other cellular functions in your body. Its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties support immune health, muscle function and brain cell activity.

    GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN
    The indicator reflects the average daily level of blood glucose over the past 3 months. An increase in the level indicates a violation of carbohydrate metabolism and the risk of diabetes mellitus of any type. A low level indicates exhaustion and starvation.

    HOMOCYSTEINE
    Homocysteine is an amino acid. Amino acids are chemicals in your blood that help create proteins. Vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and vitamin B9 (folate) break down homocysteine to generate other chemicals your body needs. High homocysteine levels may mean you have a vitamin deficiency. Without treatment, elevated homocysteine increases your risks for dementia, heart disease and stroke. A decrease in the indicator is associated with poor nutrition (lack of methionine), disorders in the work of mitochondria and liver disease.

    FERRITIN
    A ferritin test measures the amount of ferritin in your blood. Ferritin is a blood protein that contains iron. A ferritin test helps your doctor understand how much iron stores in your body. If a ferritin test reveals that your blood ferritin level is lower than normal, it indicates your body's iron stores are low, and you have iron deficiency. As a result, you could be anemic. If a ferritin test shows higher than normal levels, it could indicate that you have a condition that causes your body to store too much iron. It could also point to liver disease, rheumatoid arthritis, other inflammatory conditions or hyperthyroidism. Some types of cancer also can cause your blood ferritin level to be high.
 
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